关于儿童出行安全,父母和长辈应该知道的知识

本文转载自公众号:世界卫生组织

儿童出行安全,细节关乎生命

从孩子呱呱落地,Ta的安全、快乐和健康便是父母和看护者为之牵挂的。Ta的第一个笑声、开口说的第一句话都是父母耳中的天籁之音;Ta的第一次跌倒、第一次哭泣都使每一位爸爸妈妈揪心不已。

随着孩子的成长,Ta们的活动范围逐渐扩张,从而增加了Ta们遭受到伤害的可能性。伤害是全球范围内导致儿童死亡的主要原因之一:其中,道路交通伤害尤为值得关注。

全世界范围内,道路交通伤害是18岁以下儿童死亡的四大原因之一:每年导致将近186,300名儿童死于道路交通碰撞,其中以儿童行人和儿童乘员受到的伤害占比较大,由此我们可以从儿童步行和搭乘机动车出行两大方面提升儿童出行安全:

儿童行人:他们的身体、认知和社会发育有限,相较于成年人而言,他们更容易因为“看不见”而遭受到伤害;

儿童乘员(机动车):幼童因其体型和体重发育不完全,在搭乘机动车时,针对成年人所设计的安全带无法为儿童乘员提供有效的保护

儿童行人安全

“看见”和“被看见”是提升儿童行人安全的两大要素。相较于成年人而言,儿童的身材更矮小,“被看见”的几率较低,由此更容易因为“看不见”而遭受伤害。

此外,幼童的视野也受限于不完善的身高,导致Ta们无法看清路况;除此之外,他们认知发育水平的不完善使他们很难判断车辆的方向、距离和速度,从而增加了他们与机动车发生碰撞的可能性。

作为幼童的监护人,建议时刻监督好儿童的交通行为:例如过马路时紧紧牵着儿童,告诉孩子“红灯停、绿灯行”;除此之外,还应为儿童穿戴有反光材质的衣物,提升孩童的“可见度”。

“看见”和“被看见”同时具备,更安全。

儿童乘员安全

数据显示,正确使用儿童安全座椅可以将婴儿道路交通事故死亡可能性降低70%,将幼儿道路交通事故死亡可能性降低至最高80%。

安全带是基于成年人的身高和体型所设计的,并不适用于儿童。专门针对不同年龄段婴幼儿的身高、体重和年龄所设计的儿童安全座椅能够通过限制其身体移动,减少物理惯性对其头部、颈部和腰腹部造成伤害的可能性;还能防止儿童乘员因为物理冲击力被抛出车身,受到严重伤害甚至致死的可能性。

此外,今天是122全国交通安全日,今年的主题是“细节关乎生命,安全文明出行”。提升道路安全并不能仅靠某个部门或机构就能完成的,道路安全与每一个人都息息相关。一个无心之失也许就是一场悲剧,而一个微小的细节也许就能制止一次碰撞。

世界卫生组织期望借助今天的日子,邀请每一位道路交通参与者一同反思,如何通过改善自身行为提升自己以及他人的出行安全,做到“我的安全我做主,你的安全我守护”。

Details Vital to Life

What Parents and Caregivers Should Know about Protecting Children while Traveling

Since a child is born, their safety, happiness and health are the key concerns of parents and caregivers. The first laugh and the first words sound like beautiful music to the parents’ ears; while the first fall and the first cry cause parents’ anxiety.

As children grow up, their space of activity is gradually expanding, thus increasing their possibility of being hurt. Injury is one of the main reasons for child mortality in the world; and among them, road safety injuries deserve special attention.

All over the world, road traffic injuries are one of the four main causes of death for children under 18 years old: taking away near 186,300 children’s lives each year, especially child pedestrians and child occupants in motor vehicles, who can sustain severe injuries:

Child pedestrians: due to the limitations of children’s body, cognition and social development, they are more vulnerable to injury compared with adults because of not being seen.

Child occupants of motor vehicles: due to the underdevelopment of body and weight, children cannot be as effectively protected by seatbelts alone in the vehicle, which are designed for adults.

Child pedestrian safety

“Seeing” and “being seen” are two components of improving child pedestrian safety. Because children are shorter than adults, it is less likely for them to be seen by drivers and easier to suffer from injury.

In addition, children’s range of vision is limited by their height, thus they cannot see the road conditions clearly; besides, their cognition and growth make it difficult for them to tell the direction, distance and speed of cars, thus resulting in possible crashes.

As a child’s guardian, we should pay attention to children’s road behaviors at all times: such as holding their hands tightly when crossing the roads and teaching them about the traffic lights. Furthermore, we should have children wear the clothes made of reflective materials, so as to increase their visibility.

When children can see and can be seen at all times, they are safer.

Child occupant safety

Data shows that the appropriate use of child restraints could reduce infant and child mortality in traffic crashes by 70% and up to 80%, respectively.

Seatbelts are designed based on the height and body of adults, thus not suitable for children. Child restraints that are designed for the height, weight and age of infants and children at different age groups, can limit physical impact thereby reducing the potential harm in case of crash to a child’s head, neck and waist; child restraints can also prevent occupants from being thrown from the vehicle due to impact force, or suffering from serious injury or even death.

Today is December 2nd, National Road Safety Day. This year’s theme is “details vital to life, travel safely and considerately”. Road safety cannot be ensured by only one department or one agency; it is closely linked to everyone. Attention to details could prevent a crash; and a careless mistake could cause an irretrievable tragedy.

World Health Organization invites every road user to consider how we can change our own behavior to improve road safety for ourselves and others.

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